Heat Recovery Micro Systems

       Thermodynamic Technology Development

Welcome to Heat Recovery Micro Systems!

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We recently invented a revolutionary new thermodynamic power cycle, called REHOS (Regenerative Heat of Solution) thermodynamic cycle (patent pending), a real Game Changer in Power Generation. It is derived from the ammonia-water binary Absorption Refrigeration and Absorption Heat Transformer (AHT) cycles, (and can of course also be designed using other binary compounds like Li-LiBr, CaCl2-Water, or CO2-Water etc.) All the latent heat of the vapor rejected at the low pressure prime mover exhaust is regeneratively recovered in an absorber, and re-used in a heatpump configuration for powering the ORC power sub-cycle in a fully regenerative way.

The REHOS cycle consist of two distinctly different sub-cycles, combined regeneratively, namely an Absorption Heat Transformer (AHT-VC Hybrid) type heat pump, pumping low-grade heat from a low temperature heat source up to higher temperature, and a simple Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) utilizing the pumped, higher temperature heat to power a turbine. The AHT is hybridized by the addition of a vapor compressor, forming a Heat Transformer type Heat Pump with an electrical component coefficient of performance (COP_e) very much higher than the conventional vapor compression (VC) heat pumps, (the AHT-VC Hybrid type heat pump use both electrical and heat energy for the heat pumping process, while the conventional VC type use only electricity). More detail in this regard is available in my paper [10] downloadable from the listing below. The ORC use the pumped higher temperature heat to power the turbine, and the turbine low pressure exhaust vapor (heat rejection) is recovered in the heat pump reactor bottom, where it is absorbed regeneratively, instead of rejecting the latent heat to an external cooling system. This regeneration provide (or rather, recirculate) a large amount of the heat required by the ORC, (see also the paper [11] for better understanding of the regeneration concept used) and only the energy shortfall (after complete heat balance of the cycle) is required to be added by external sources. Much more information is provided in my downloadable paper [13] below.

The power developed by the REHOS cycle as pictured in the sketch above, is easily seen as the netto electrical power output = (generator output - compressor power - pump power) and the only external heat required to deliver this power is the input heat, calculated by the overall heat balance of the complete cycle. The thermodynamic efficiency of the REHOS cycle calculate to > 70%, as shown in several descriptions, but probably described best in the document [11] written in April 2018, as well as the publication [17] written July 2018. This is a higher thermodynamic heat-to-power conversion efficiency than the current best gas turbine in combined cycle efficiency (~ 65%)!

In the REHOS cycle as sketched on the left of the image above, the ORC is completely internally isolated from the heat pump operating medium, and may therefore be using any convenient refrigerant in the ORC, suitable for the temperature range where it is used. It has the disadvantage, however, of forcing the desorption process of the heat pump bubble reactor to occur at a single low temperature, decreasing the heat pump efficiency slightly as less of the sliding temperature effect in binary mixtures is used. In the Simplified REHOS Cycle sketched on the right of the image above, the medium used in the ORC is the same volatile component of the binary medium (NH3 in the NH3 in aqua binary machine) used for the transformer-type heatpump, making use of direct contact heat exchange of vapor bubbles in the absorption area of the bubble reactor of the heat pump, instead of the heat having to traverse the heat exchanger tubing. It also allow drastically larger temperature glide in the desorber area, extended to the full length of the bubble reactor, again increasing reversibility (and therefore efficiency) in the heat transfer components of the thermodynamic cycle. A comparison of the waste heat "upgrade" for increased commercial value using various heat pumps have been compiled to also explain with typical examples, the incredibly high heat to power conversion efficiency of the REHOS cycle, even when extracting ambient temperature heat from the environment. More information for you is provided in the downloadable paper [11] in the comparison of various modern heat pump technologies.

Before you decide that the efficiency claim is impossible, read my paper covering the topic [19] and [20] ......it demonstrate that the second law of thermodynamics is not violated by the REHOS cycle, even though the efficiency limit is independent of operating temperatures..... 

This simple example merely summarize the processes, but does not really do the revolutionary REHOS technology justice, and may still leave many questions, so it is very strongly advised that you download and study the attached documents below for a better understanding......A summary of the REHOS Technology is given in the latest executive overview paper [13] ready for you to download, below.

The Executive Overview document also represent the first few pages of the document spelling out some of the most important uses of the REHOS technology [8] included below for you to download:  

The extreme scalability of the REHOS cycle from a few kW to several Megawatt, as well as the combination of refrigeration (A/C) and power generation without the need for external cooling towers are just some of the revolutionary breakthrough aspects of this technology. The further revolutionary effect of being able to extract waste heat from the environment and generate base load power from it, put this Renewable Energy Technology in a class all on its own.

The extremely high heat to power conversion efficiency, as well as the flexibility of using different readily available organic rankine (ORC) turbines, positive displacement expanders like Scroll-, and Screw Expanders and Lysholm Turbines just to name a few, and standard off-the-shelf compression equipment and heat exchangers in the REHOS cycle, would enhance global implementation to form a true Energy Revolution. All the equipment used in this cycle are coming from existing, state-of-the-art technology, just configured differently to form this novel regenerative thermodynamic power cycle.  On the following pages the effect of implementation on various sectors of the economy is touched on.

Using the correct global implementation strategy, healthy competition in the capitalist economies around the world would very soon force the cost of the REHOS cycle hardware down dramatically, making the electricity it can produce nearly free.....when using solar thermal, geothermal and the abundant waste heat readily available globally. This would create a massive revolutionary increase in the use of electricity in all sectors and cut the use of fossils (and generation of CO2) drastically, as it would simply not make economic sense to use expensive fossil fuels any more, effectively limiting global warming to the required target < 2 Celsius. Commercial gain and human greed would drive implementation globally, bankrupting large and persistent fossil fuel users that resist adoption of the lower cost REHOS technology empowered power generation.

Using the REHOS technology for commercial gain globally, may just reverse global warming! Look at the next pages to recognize the huge economic stimulus that can be brought about by the "near-free" electricity the REHOS technology can bring globally. This, added to the secondary market of people demanding more and more electrical appliances, -vehicles, -planes, -boats etc. to use this "near-free" electricity would surely eradicate poverty in many countries and stimulate job creation and economic prosperity globally!

The Energy Revolution has started with the launch of the REHOS technology by presenting the paper attached here [4] that was published in the POWERGEN-AFRICA Conference Proceedings of July 2017, held at Sandton Convention Centre in South Africa:

PowerGen-Africa 2017 REHOS Technology Introduction paper was selected by the Conference Best Paper Awards Committee as one of the three finalists, giving it a label of "Highly Commended".

Should you be interested in our other publications showing that the REHOS cycle actually represent Baseload Power Generation [1], and could readily be added as bottoming cycle to existing fossil fueled, nuclear and even solar thermal power plants to increase generation efficiency, the pdf files, as well as links to websites where articles were published have been added below for you to download.......

Further to the Simplified REHOS cycle document [5] I also compiled a further detailed document, more for the academics among us, as this document cover the details of the real thermodynamic process values and how it was calculated [6] and [7] together with [16] for a typical example process of the Simplified REHOS Cycle configuration. Should you be part of an academic institution and looking for research topics for your PhD students all the publications below would be the documents to have them prove the REHOS cycle in a laboratory and dedicate their thesis to reverse global warming.

As the less known technology area of the REHOS cycle focus on the heat driven heatpump primary sub-cycle, or Absorption Heat Transformer (AHT) type heat pump, we decided to demonstrate an operational Heatpump (the design is published in [17] below) recognizing the standard Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) is already a well known commercial technology used extensively in Geothermal and other heat recovery applications. Combining the two sub-cycles regeneratively to form the REHOS cycle is logical, and shown with example system temperatures in the publication [18] below.

Chronological Publications links and downloads (pdf) covering the REHOS Technology:

[21]    Key Principles of the REHOS Cycle.pdf written November 2018

[20]     REHOS Cycle vs Perpetual-Motion Machine of the 2nd Kind.pdf written October 2018

[19]    Rankine Cycle Efficiency increase by the Regenerative Recovery of Historically Rejected Heat_rev1.pdf written October 2018

[18]    REHOS Cycle at a Glance_rev1 September 2018.pdf written September 2018

[17]    The Syphon Bubble Reactor Heat Transformer as Heatpump in the REHOS Cycle_rev1.pdf written July 2018

[16]    The Binary NH3-H2O Bubble Reactor-redone_rev2.pdf written July 2018

[15]    REHOS Technology Executive Summary.pdf written April 2018.

[14]    Competitive Advantages of REHOS Technology_rev2.pdf re-written with more references April 2018.

[13]    The Proof-of-Concept Model of the REHOS Ejector Heat Pump_Part 1.pdf written April 2018.

[12]    Executive Overview of the REHOS Technology_Redone April 2018.pdf written April 2018.

[11]     Comparison of various Modern Heatpump Technologies for unlocking Commercial Value from Ambient Heat_rev4.pdf written April 2018.

[10]     Clarification of COP calculations for Absorption Heat Transformer (AHT) Type Heat Pumps.pdf written March 2018.

[9]     Executive Overview of the REHOS Technology_rev1.pdf written February 2018.

[8]     Competitive Advantages of REHOS Technology_rev1.pdf written January 2018.

[7]     The Binary NH3-H2O Bubble Reactor_rev1.pdf written December 2017.

[6]     Clarifying Process Parameters for the REHOS Cycle Concept_rev3.pdf written October 2017.

[5]    The Simplified REHOS Cycle.pdf written August 2017.

[4]    PowerGen-Africa Conference Proceedings on Introduction of REHOS Concepts.pdf  presented 18 July 2017.

[3]    Engineeringnews Article on New Thermodynamic Cycle set to disrupt the Renewables Landscape, published July 2017.

[2]   EE Publisher's Article on Renewable Energy for Baseload Power, published June 2017

[1]     Renewable Energy for Baseload Power.pdf  written April 2017.

A short video give you a good overview of the REHOS Technology, but if, by watching the video, you start

                               Link:  http://youtu.be/jiFKYi9_K2k produced and published January 2018.

thinking this sound too good to be true, you have to download the listed papers above and judge for yourself! Start with number [11] and you would understand why......